Annotated Bibliographies

Student Annotated Bibliographies

Annotated Bibliographies for Student Memorials

The Nanking Massacre 1937

A&E. “Nanjing Massacre.” History. Accessed May 9, 2013.

This source gave us a basic understanding of the Nanking massacre chronologically. The article gave us an easy to follow timeline that guided us to set up our museum in a similar fashion.

Chang, Iris. Rape of Nanking. New York, NY: Basic Books, 1997.

Iris Chang’s Rape of Nanking was extremely helpful in our research. Chang poignantly and powerfully examines the Nanking Massacre from many different perspectives and political topics. The chapters in which we found particularly important were the ones focusing on the historical tension between China and Japan (Chapter 1), the methodology and details of the massacre (Chapters 2 and 4), the international media coverage (chapter 6) and the trials (Chapter 8).

The History Place. “The Rape of Nanking 1937-1938 300,000 Deaths.” The History Place: Genocide in the 20th Century. Last modified 2000. Accessed May 14, 2013.

This source, like a couple others, provides background and general information about the events of 1937. It gives solid information about the invasion, the rapes, and the murders. But what makes this site stand out is that it also goes in to great depth about America’s role at the time and it’s reaction to these atrocities. The New York Times and Time Magazine, published reports about the events but many Americans found the stories hard to believe. At the time, most American leaders were more concerned with Hitler expanding Germany in Europe.

Jones, Adam. “Case Study: The Nanjing Massacre, 1937-38.” gendercide. Last modified 2002. Accessed May 9, 2013.

This source helped us a lot with the gender-related issues in the Nanjing Massacre. One of the awful war tactics that was widely used was rape and torture for women and this “case study” really helped us understand the magnitude of this killing strategy not only physically but psychologically. The website classifies this massacre as a “gendercide,” which is an interesting and opinionated perspective that helped us decide what we wanted to represent in the memorial.

Joseph, Rhawn, prod. “Rape of Nanking Part I Atrocities in Asia Nanjing Massacre.” Rape of Nanking Part I Atrocities in Asia Nanjing Massacre. Directed by Rhawn Joseph. Accessed May 10, 2013.

We used both part 1 and part 2 of this documentary to understand the Rape of Nanking better. This documentary provides context to the massacre and describes the prior relationship between Japan and China. With dialogue and pictures playing simultaneously and arranged chronologically, this film helped us get a better grasp of the event as a whole in a more intuitive way then just reading an article allowed.

Kagan, Richard. “Nanjing Massacre.” In Encyclopedia of Modern Asia, edited by Karen Christensen and David Levinson. Vol. 4. World History in Context. New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2002.

This source gave us a very basic description of the Nanking Massacre and helped us decipher which topics to pursue more. This particular article helped us realize the importance of media coverage during the massacre and compelled us to research other information. The source also gave us a rough count of the estimated death toll, stated at 200,000.

Lim, Louisa. “Hollywood Takes on Japan’s 1937 Invasion of China.” NPR. mp3 audio file, 05:12. July 9, 2007. Accessed May 9, 2013.

This NPR piece is about the Nanking Massacre and the release of a Hollywood film based on the massacre. Although this wasn’t as much of a factual source as our other sources, it gave an interesting opinionated piece on the public perception of the Nanking Massacre. Another interesting part of the radio segment is the information about how the directors and producers decided to frame the massacre and the ethical process of achieving appropriateness.

Miller, Laura. “Japanese denial and ‘The Rape of Nanking.'” Last modified 2000. Accessed May 14, 2013.

This article is very interesting because it is an interview between a CNN reporter and Iris Chang. Chang is a Chinese-American journalist and author of critically acclaimed, “The Rape of Nanking.” In 1999 a Japanese publishing company announced that they refused to publish her book in Japan unless she made some serious amendments.The book gave honest insight about the atrocities that the Japanese military had committed in Nanking in 1937. This article is an email exchange between Miller and Chang in which Chang discusses the reaction of her book and the ongoing denial in Japan.

1937 Nanking Massacre. Last modified 2005. Accessed May 9, 2013.

This website was helpful in that it provided photographic evidence and gave a basic description of the massacre that helped pursue other research. The photographs in particular helped clarify what these atrocities actually looked like and helped us decipher, conceptually, what we wanted our memorial to represent. The “Other Links” and “More Book Reading” tabs on the home page was extremely helpful leading us to other accredited sources.

Power, Samantha. A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide. New York, NY: Basic Books, 2002.

We used Power’s book for basic background information behind the word “Genocide” and its conception. Powers gave us a firm understanding of the history of the word “genocide” and incorporated that frustrating process into the overall sentiment of our memorial. We also took into account how enlightening it was when the word was established and tried to mimic that sentiment in our final room, which is supposed to represent clarity and progression.

The Puzzling Rape of Nanking. Accessed May 14, 2013.

This site was helpful because it is well organized and clearly broke down the information from Abstract, Historical Background, Research Report, to Historial Significance. The author, Lisa Zongolowicz, also uses lots of reputable references from books that we were not able to get accesses to on our own/ didn’t have time to read all of it. She takes key case studies and examples from those books and explains how the Chinese civilians and soldiers were brutality murdered.

The Rape of Nanking, 1937. Accessed May 14, 2013.

This site is helpful because it is one of the few that tells of real first hand experiences of German businessman, John Rabe. Rabe was living in Nanking at the time of the invasion and fled with other members of the Safety Committee to the Safety Zone (area with only civillians and unarmed soldiers). This site gives excerpts from his diary, The Good Man of Nanking, which illustrate the atrocities he saw and experienced.

Vautrin, Minnie, and Tsen Shui-fang. The Undaunted Women of Nanking. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2010. Accessed May 9, 2013.

The Undaunted Women of Nanking is poignantly described and powerfully written to ensure us, as readers, a lasting impression of what it meant to be a woman in Nanking in 1937. This book was not only factual, but also emotionally provoking. The take from this book helped us decipher how we wanted to design our memorial conceptually and edit the symbolic components of our memorial. Considering that our memorial is in the United States, it was also very impactful to hear the reflections and perspective of Minnie Vautrin, and American missionary who saved hundreds of lives.

Wiley, Kate. “Nanking – Inter War Years Seminar.” Lecture, Lick Wilmerding Highschool, San Francisco, CA, 2012.

Annie was in Ms. Wiley’s Inter War Years Seminar and took many notes from her class lectures that helped clarify the topic upon review. Some of the topics in her lectures that were thoroughly explained and tremendously helpful were the Japanese fascist regime and foreign relations of the Nanking Massacre.

Yamamoto, Masahiro. Nanking: Anatomy of an Atrocity. N.p.: Praeger, 2000. Accessed May 9, 2013.

Yamamoto’s book gave us an interesting portrayal of the Nanking massacre that was more holistic and unique, considering the author is Japanese. Yamamoto determines that the atrocities in Nanking was a kind of war with both Eastern and Western military history. Yamamoto concludes that the Nanking trials were mimicked from the Holocaust trials and were disproportionately dramatic. Reading Yamamoto’s book gave us a more balanced perspective.

Rwandan Genocide- Rape Victims

De Brouwer, Anne-Marie, and Sandra Ka Hon Chou, eds. The Men Who Killed Me: Rwandan Survivors of Sexual Violence. Vancouver BC: D&M Publishers Inc., 2009. Print. I will use this book to further my knowledge about individual cases of rape. This book narrates the story of 17 rape victims including a man, and how their experiences with the Rwandan genocide has affected their lives. Suffering rape is traumatic in itself and having the courage to speak of that experience is very admirable. I believe that this book, will help me understand the pain that these victims suffered. I am especially interested in the male’s account because men can also be victims of rape yet, many don’t acknowledge that.

Human Rights Watch Human Rights Advocacy Group. “Why Rape Was a Key Part of Genocide in Rwanda.” Smart Library on Globalization. Ed. Smart Library on Globalization. Smart Library on Globalization, n.d. Web. 13 May 2013. <;. This web page speaks to the role that rape took in the Rwandan genocide, and why it played such an important role in the genocide. This webpage also gives a general background of what occurred in Rwanda during the genocide. I will use this website to gain a better knowledge of the role that rape took during the Rwandan genocide, and how that role can be incorporated into my memorial piece.

Jones, Adam. “Gender and genocide in Rwanda.” Journal of Genocide Research 4.1 (2002): 65-94. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 May 2013. <;. This article speaks to the role that gender played in the Rwandan genocide and how that aspect made it a different genocide than others. I will use this article to understand the gender breakdown and how gender played a large role in the Rwandan genocide. I will also use this article to learn more about the notion of gendercide, for a lot of the after effects relates to the role of gender in the genocide.

Landesman, Peter. “A Woman’s Work.” The New York Times [New York City] 15 Sept. 2002: n. pag. The New York Times. Web. 6 May 2013. <;. This New York Times article speaks to the atrocities that occurred during the Rwandan genocide, and the role that Pauline Nyiramasuhuko played. I will use this article to further understand the reasoning behind raping women systematically during the genocide and how could it have been prevented. This article explains how the view of rape had changed as a result of Pauline Nyiramasuhuko.

Lorch, Donatella. “Wave of Rape Adds New Horror To Rwanda’s Trail of Brutality.” The New York Times [New York City] 15 May 1995: n. pag. The New York Times. Web. 6 May 2013. <;. This is a New York Times article that specifically adresses the problem that rape brought to the immediate aftermath of the Rwandan genocide. This article features part of the story of a girl who’s life was spared in return of being kept as a sex slave. I will use this article for the numbers it includes in terms of how many women and girls were raped, how many babies were conceived, and how many abortions occurred as a result of the mass rape.

Mukamana, Donatilla. “The Lived Experience of Genocide Rape Survivors in Rwanda.” Journal of Nursing Scholarship 40.4 (2008): 379-84. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 May 2013. <;. This was a study created to explore the experiences that rape victims lived during the Rwandan genocide. This study is centered around women who receive aid from the Association de Veuves du Genocide d’Avril (association of the widows of the genocide of April). I will use this article to understand the cultural affect the rapes have had on the survivors and how their lives have been changed as a result of the rape.

Nowrojee, Binaifer. “SHATTERED LIVES Sexual Violence during the Rwandan Genocide and its Aftermath.” Human Rights Watch. Ed. Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch, Sept. 1996. Web. 13 May 2013. This is a report done by the Human Right Watch to report what was occurring in Rwanda during the genocide. This report has a holistic view on the effect of the rape in women. I will use this article to further understand how the role of women changed as a result of their traumatic experiences.

Powers, Samantha. A Problem from Hell America and the Age of Genocide. USA: HarperCollins, 2002. Print. I will use Samantha Power’s book to have a broad and general sense of what occurred during the Rwandan genocide and what role did the U.S play in preventing or continuing the genocide.

“Rwanda and the Politics of Memory.” German Politics & Society: n. pag. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 May 2013. <;. This article speaks to the political side of the Rwandan genocide and the role that Germany played during the genocide. I will use this article to understand how did other countries aside from the U.S react to the genocide that was occurring, and how these countries could have prevented the Rwandan genocide. I think this is an interesting article because it upholds responsibility to a country that had experienced a genocide themselves.

Sharlach, Lisa. “Rape as Genocide: Bangladesh, the Former Yugoslavia, and Rwanda.” New Political Science 22.1 (2000): 89-102. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 May 2013. <;. This is an article written arguing that mass rape should be considered and act of genocide and therefore should be punishable. This article uses Bangladesh, Former Yugoslavia, and Rwanda as examples to when mass rape in itself should be considered a form of genocide. I will use this article to further my knowledge in the similarities and differences that occurred in the systematic mass rapes in Bangladesh and Former Yugoslavia.

“When Rape Becomes Genocide.” The New York Times [New York City] 5 Sept. 1998: n. pag. The New York TImes. Web. 6 May 2013. <;. This is a New York Times article that speaks to justice in terms of rape in the Rwandan genocide. This article speaks to the rape culture that sprouted as result of the Rwandan Genocide and has continued throughout Rwanda to this day. Although Mr. Akayesu was sentenced and in the charges urging men to rape Tutsi women those charges were not initially placed on him at the time of arrest. I will use this article to have a better understanding of justice for the Rwandan rape victims, and how I can integrate that unreceived justice into my memorial.

Annotated Bibliographies for Student Memorials

Rwanda Genocide

Works Cited

Cincimedia60. Ntarama Church Memorial -1994 Rwandan Genocide. YouTube. YouTube, 22 Jan. 2010. Web. 13 May 2013. <;. This youtube clip shows one of the memorials in Rwanda, in a place called Ntarama. In this church where hundreds went to hide from the Hutu militias, there are still bones, skulls, torn clothes, and personal belongings in the church. Over the years the body parts and belongings of the victims have been arranged in such a way that someone who visits the church can see the extent of the massacre. Skulls, femurs, pots, and clothes serve as a permanent reminder of the genocide, and Jackson and I plan on having a component of our memorial that is as effective and meaningful as the one in Ntarama.

Culture of Rwanda. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2013. <;. THis website provides cultural, economic, political and ethnic background to Rwanda. Jackson and I will use this site to augment our general knowledge about Rwandan culture and the country as a whole before and after the genocide. This website is useful in the sense that it doesn’t solely focus on the genocide rather it looks at Rwanda as a whole. CONT!!!

DuPont, Alfred I. Ghosts of Rwanda. Frontline. Frontline, 1 Apr. 2001. Web. 13 May 2013. <;. The videos on this Frontline segment about the genocide provide really good images and real like accounts of what the genocide was, and how it impacted the country as a whole. There is also a very interesting clip that details the bystander and hero mentality. This will be really helpful for the section of our memorial that will tackle the issues of human nature and someone’s responsibility and obligation to other humans.

George, Brian. “Kigali: Modern Rwanda Reflects a Calm and Pleasant Beauty.” US History Collection. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013. <|A167843254&docType=GALE&role=>. This article talks about the state Kigali is currently in, highlighting the contrast from the horrific genocide. It also talks about the barriers of economic development that Rwanda is trying to overcome. We could use this article if we want to accurately illustrate the urbanization of Rwanda and a society that is trying to heal.

Gourevitch, Philip. We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be Killed with Our Families. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1998. Print. Gourevitch’s work describes his travels through Rwanda after the genocide, and contains many stories from survivors and perpetrators alike and personal reflections on the meaning of genocide. This book contains unique perspectives on the genocide, and using this book will provide us with greater knowledge of how to portray the genocide artistically.

Hatzfeld, Jean. Machete Season: The Killers in Rwanda Speak. New York: Picador, 2003. Print. Machete Season by Jean Hatzfeld is a report on the perpetrators of the Rwandan genocide. I skimmed through a few chapters of the book right when I got it and in it there were perspectives and accounts from individuals who were perpetuating the genocide. This new perspective is a very important one that not many experience, and Jackson and I think it will be useful to include multiple perspectives in our memorial. We would also like our memorial to be open to all people who were affected by the genocide, whether they be victims looking to heal or perpetrators coming to repent.

Holocaust Encyclopedia: Rwanda. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 May 2013. <;. Jackson and I used the Holocaust Memorial Museum website to supplement our background knowledge of the Rwandan genocide. The page that we used in affiliated with the Holocaust Memorial website and provides a lot on information not only about the systematic killing of the Tutsi minority but the political and economic climate of Rwanda in 1996. There are a lot of important economic factors that contributed to the impact of the genocide, and Jackson and I found it very helpful that this website included all the different aspects of the genocide.

Keane, Fergal. Season of Blood. New York: Penguin Group, 1996. Print. Keane’s work is the story of his journey with his BBC colleagues through Rwanda right after the genocide. He writes about many perspectives of the genocide, from travellers to rebels to killers. He blames the Rwandan politicians for enflaming the conflict between the Hutus and the Tutsis. This book will be useful to us because it will give us a first hand perspective of the genocide, and will shed light on the role that Rwandan politicians played in the genocide.

Kigali Genocide Memorial Centre. N.p., Apr. 2004. Web. 6 May 2013. <;. The Kigali Memorial Centre is a memorial cite for the victims and survivors of the Rwandan genocide. Along with a historical description of the genocide, this site also provides survivor accounts and photos, which is very useful to Jackson and I as we tackle the “human nature” aspect of our memorial. We also found this website useful because it has a similar goal and philosophy as us, and we would like to embody similar themes in the Kigali memorial to our memorial somewhere in the United States. Also, another factor that sets this website apart from others is that there is a section dedicated to the education of the genocide, which as we’ve learned is really important for the rehabilitation of victims.

Kuperman, Alan J. The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention – Genocide in Rwanda. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 2001. Print. This book discusses the role that the U.S. government played in the genocide. It talks about the extent to which the U.S. intervened in the genocide and what the U.S. government could have done to prevent the genocide. We can use information from this book to inform our presentation of ethical questions of obligation surrounding the genocide in our memorial.

Longman, Timothy. “Rwanda.” Countries and Their Cultures. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2013. <;. This website gives information on Rwandan culture, ethnic relations, food and politics, among many other subjects, and inevitably talks about the influence that the genocide had on them. This will be very useful when we are trying to find the right elements to incorporate into our memorial that reflect Rwandan society.

Power, Samantha. A Problem from Hell – America and the Age of Genocide. New York: HarperCollins, 2002. Print. Samantha Power’s book sheds light on recurring themes of genocide using examples of many recent genocides, including the Rwandan Genocide. She talks mostly about UN involvement and how UN troops deployed in Rwanda were “mostly in a listening mode.” She talks about the roles of upstanders and bystanders, getting at the motivations behind the UN’s actions. Power’s chapter on Rwanda will inform our presentation on the role that the international community played in the Rwandan Genocide.

Prunier, Gérard. The Rwanda Crisis – History of a Genocide. New York: Columbia UP, 1995. Print. This book gives a detailed retelling of the genocide and considers the local perspective as well as the international perspective. The chapters have very detailed subcategories that are comprehensive and easy to sift through. This could be very useful when we are trying to learn more about specific elements of the genocide.

Short, Clare. “The Lessons We Can Learn from Rwanda.” New Statesman. N.p.: EBSCO, 2003. N. pag. History Reference Center. Web. 14 May 2013. <;. This source talks about the ethical lessons we can learn the genocide in Rwanda. She focuses on the lack of international attention that poorer countries receive compared to more wealthy countries. We could use this information in analyzing and depicting the international role in Rwanda, both before and after the genocide.

Transitional Justice: Repairing Self and Society. Facing History, n.d. Web. 14 May 2013. <;. This website was helpful in terms of providing information as to what the Rwandans did with their people after the genocide. There were re-education camps were children “un-learned” dangerous behavior and harmful ideologies. This website is interesting and useful because the whole point of our memorial is to remind people about the possibilities of human nature and to help ensure that tragedies that happened in Rwanda don’t happen again. So, our philosophy is kind of similar to those of the Re-education camps in Rwanda.

Annotated Bibliographies for Student MemorialsGuatemalan Genocide Against the Maya

Authentic Maya. “Maya Culture.” Authentic Maya: Guatemala – Cradle of the Maya Civilization. Last modified January 28, 2011. Accessed May 14, 2013.

This site is dedicated to Maya culture, particularly within Guatemala. From geography to history to particular traditions, the information is plentiful. As mentioned in the annotation above, this site was included as a cross check for a less reputable source on Mayan culture. This particular article contains details on older (ancient) Maya history, traditions, art, and ways of life. It contains various images (art, artifacts) that have informed us of the style we will try to incorporate in our memorial.

Bartlett, Lauren. “Central Americans are increasingly U.S. born.” News release. Accessed May 14, 2013.

According to an article written at University of California Berkeley, the Guatemalans born in the U.S. are more educated and have more opportunities. We thought it would be important to include this article as citation of a benefit to living in America—not everything is bad. While the Guatemalans struggled to assimilate, their children now have better chances at success and can funnel that success back to their roots in Guatemala who were not displaced during the genocide. However, the article and findings do suggest an important quality of the U.S. as a “melting pot,” in which it is easy to lose the integrity of one’s past heritage in the mix of a greater amalgam of culture (for better or worse). Our memorial intends to highlight this reality for U.S. immigrants. University of California Berkeley is, as mentioned above, a reputable institution and we can trust the information published under their name.

Brown, William, and Mary Odem. “Living Across Borders: Guatemala Maya Immigrants in the U.S. South.” Southern Spaces, n.s., February 16, 2011. Accessed May 14, 2013.

This essay explores the struggles of two Maya families to adapt to their new American lives after immigration from civil war ridden Guatemala. The author, Mary Odem, explains their struggles to find work, sustain their heritage, and support themselves and the families still in Guatemala. We plan on using this source as evidence for how the displaced Guatemalans were truly affected adversely by the genocide. Mary Odem is an Associate professor of Women, Gender, and Sexuality studies at Emory University. She has received her MA, and Ph.D from University of California, Berkeley, a reputable institution.

“The Genocide Trial of Rios Montt.” Video file. Accessed May 14, 2013.

This online archive contains links to videos detailing individual accounts of the genocide, the aftermath, and more recently, reactions to the trial of Rios Montt. It also contains videos exploring the general vein of memory and legacy. As the name of the site indicates (“Every memory counts”), we expect to hear from diverse but unified voices in these videos, hopefully particularly from displaced Maya.

Granito: How to Nail a Dictator. Directed by Pamela Yates. Skylight Pictures, 2011. Accessed May 14, 2013.

Considering that the dictator responsible for much of the suffering during the Guatemalan genocide was found guilty on counts of genocide just yesterday, we thought that we should learn more about how the trial came about, even if we do not ultimately incorporate the trial in our contemporary memorial. We especially wanted to include it because the evidence found in the film was used during the trial to prosecute Montt. Consequently, this film is a strong example of how justice can exist outside of the courtroom, and perhaps our memorial can embody this particular characteristic.

Guatemala – An American Genocide. ABC Australia, 1999. Accessed May 14, 2013.

This video presents a very strong, but nevertheless valid, opinion of the United States’ role in the Guatemalan genocide. Film of the massacre sites is supplemented with testimony from various U.S. officials of the Reagan administration. The source clearly notes the missteps and hypocrisy of the U.S. that is impossible to ignore when creating a memorial to Maya and an ode to conflicted Maya living in the United States. ABC Australia, a reputable and surprisingly mainstream corporation, produced the piece.

“Guatemala 1982.” In Genocide, edited by Margaret Melicharova. N.p.: Peace Pledge Union, 2002. Accessed May 14, 2013.

This source is an overview of the Guatemalan genocide that we used to familiarize ourselves with the topic. There is not a particular author for this article, but the Peace Pledge Union, which sponsored the encyclopedia, has been educating internationally about war and genocide since 1934.

Hiller, Patrick T., J. P. Linstroth, and Paloma Ayala Vela. “I am Maya, not Guatemalan, nor Hispanic”—the Belongingness of Mayas in Southern Florida. Biography and Ethnicity. N.p.: Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 2009. Accessed May 14, 2013.

This study, completed in 2009, explores the lives of Maya immigrants living in Southern Florida after escaping the genocide in Guatemala. The study focuses on the loss of identity and how it affects modern day Maya. The research contains personal accounts from which to draw the sentiments and emotion we would like in the memorial. The Forum: Qualitative Social Research, through which this article was published, is a peer reviewed international journal that appears to be sophisticated and trustworthy. The primary author of the article, Patrick Hiller, holds a Ph.D in Conflict Analysis and Resolution and a M.A in Human Geography. As a teacher of Conflict resolution at Portland State University, he has access to many resources to produce a trustworthy and accurate article.

Hoelscher, Steven. “Angels of memory: photography and haunting in Guatemala City.” GeoJournal. Accessed May 14, 2013. doi:10.1007/s10708-008-9203-3.

This article explores the relationship between art and history through the acts of Daniel Hernández-Salazar during the Guatemalan genocide. The article not only details Hernández-Salazar’s memorials, but gives an overview of all of the memorials for the genocide located in Guatemala’s capital city, Guatemala City. We are using this article in finding inspiration and distinction for our own memorial. The article was published through GeoJournal, a reputable and international journal dedicated to publishing official studies by professionals around the world. The author of the text, Steven Hoelscher, teaches in the department of American Studies at the University of Texas after completing his Ph.D in Geography.

Holocaust Museum Houston. “Genocide in Guatemala (1981-1983).” Holocaust Museum Houston. Accessed May 14, 2013.

This is another reference that overviews the Guatemalan genocide. We felt it was necessary to use multiple sources to cross check our facts so that we are absolutely sure that the information we associate with our memorial is absolutely accurate. While shorter in length, this article gives more information about the Maya in particular. We found this article on the website for the Holocaust Museum in Houston. While the museum focuses on the Holocaust, it is a reputable institution on genocide and we can trust the information provided about the Guatemalan genocide.

Malkin, Elisabeth. “Former Leader of Guatemala Is Guilty of Genocide Against Mayan Group.” The New York Times, May 10, 2013. Accessed May 14, 2013.

We wanted to include this article because it focuses on the particular brutalities against the Maya during the genocide. While many other articles group them with the civil war casualties, this article comes out and says that the Mayans were targeted and extermination was a goal of the persecutors. This article was found on the New York Times, a very reputable source that is absolutely trustworthy. This very recently published piece may provide us with perspective on how the American media shapes and projects public opinion about highly contentious topics (as is often the case with genocide and American involvement in foreign affairs—the Guatemalan civil war happens to be both these things).

“Maya in Guatemala.” In Internet FAQ Archives. N.p.: The Gale Group, Inc., 2008. Accessed May 14, 2013.

This source was found on the website While there is no author, which would suggest a non reputable source, the information in the article is more fact based than opinion based. As a result, we are less concerned with the reputability, since we are only using the information as basic groundwork to be built off instead of the core of our narrative. The article describes the recent history of the Maya people—specifically, it cites various Maya populations (and debates regarding those populations) and Maya Guatemalan history from European colonization through the civil war.

Parry, Robert. “Reagan’s Hand in Guatemala’s Genocide.” Last modified January 13, 2012. Accessed May 14, 2013.

Since we are exploring the lives of displaced Maya in the United States in particular, we thought it would be interesting to explore America’s role in the Guatemalan genocide. This article details Ronald Reagan’s role in the genocide and how America views Reagan and his actions today. The article is from, a source of “independent investigative journalism since 1995.” The author of the article, Robert Parry, has had a long career of journalism. He has worked at both Newsweek and Consortium News, and won the George Polk Award in 1948.

Spencer, Clare. “The rise of genocide memorials.” BBC News Magazine, June 11, 2012.

This article claims that genocide memorials have started attracting more attention. This fact, paired with the media and world’s recent focus on the Rios Montt trial, indicates that people are starting to pay more attention to genocide, justice, memory, and legacy. Perhaps the rise of memorials suggests a sudden awakening of humanity’s conscience, or it may just be a consequence of the increasing frequency of human tragedies, genocide included. For us, the article serves to put in perspective the roles of memorials and their place in memory and legacy. We found this article on BBC News, an English based and trustworthy news source.

“Traditional celebrations in Guatemala.” Guatemala: Heart of the Mayan World. Last modified December 21, 2011. Accessed May 14, 2013.

This article explains particular celebrations and traditions unique to the Maya people. eE thought it would be interesting and beneficial to understand exactly what culture the displaced Maya struggle to sustain in the United States. References of traditions and rituals from this article may be included in the final memorial as symbols of the Mayan culture that was lost (or tenuously maintained). We found this article on the Guatemala Today website, which is a not particularly reputable source—it appears to be a website for tourism. To ensure that we have accurate information, we will include another source about Mayan culture.

Annotated Bibliographies for Student Memorials


“An Analysis of Terror in Three Rural Communities in Guatemala.” Draining the Sea. AAAS, n.d. Web. 10 May 2013. <;. I plan on using this source to learn more specifics of some of the most violent massacres that occurred during the Guatemalan Genocide. I think that objective facts and statistics such as these will help me when I try to make my memorial because it’s a more objective view of then genocide. I think it’s important to look at non biased sources when getting information to make sure that my memorial is trying to unjustly demonize the perpetrators of the genocide.

Becom, Jeffrey, comp. Maya Color: The Painted Villages of Mesoamerica. New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 1997. Print. I used this source to get some inspiration from traditional Mayan villages and patterns. I wanted to try and incorporate aspects of original Mayan culture. This book includes an exploration of the symbolism behind colors in Mayan society. I want to try and weave in significance for different colors into my project.

Canby, Peter. “The Mayan Genocide Trial.” The New Yorker May 2013: n. pag. The New Yorker. Web. 6 May 2013. <;. I think the source will be helpful because justice and judgement is a huge part of how memory is effected. While I’m not specifically focussing on justice and judgement, I think that it will be helpful to keep up with the current trial of Rios Montt and perhaps incorporate some of the trial details into my memorial. I think that what he is being charged with and his defense against those charges could be useful when creating my memorial.

Granito Every Memory Matters. Granitomem, n.d. Web. 6 May 2013. <;. This source is helpful because it is the one other major memorial I’ve found of the Guatemalan Genocide. This memorial, much like I hope mine will, helps preserve the identity and culture of the victims. The style of presentation of the memorial is very different than what I plan on doing, however the idea is similar and I think it will be helpful when deciding what information to incorporate.

Granito: How to Nail a Dictator. Point of View, n.d. Web. 6 May 2013. <;. I used this source to learn about the movie Granito: How to Nail a Dictator. I wasn’t sure if I wanted to watch the movie but this website gave me an overview of it and some useful ideas and information that I could use in my memorial. It also lead me to the Granito Memorial project which ended up being helpful for me and the only memorial for the Guatemalan Genocide that I’ve been able to find.

Holocaust Museum Houston. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 May 2013. <;. I used this site for basic background and information about the genocide. This site had dates and facts, and it was helpful to start out with a purely informational base of the genocide before deciding on the direction I wanted to take my memorial.

Magolis, Mac. “Guatemala’s Trial of the Century.” The Daily Beast. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 May 2013. <;. I used this source to learn more about the exact details of Rios Montt’s trial and accusations. I also used it to see his defense argument. I thought these were important because I think that this sort of a trial for the leader of a country during genocide is unprecedented, and it’s a very important step in trying to right the wrongs of the genocide. This trial could be very important in how the memory of the genocide is preserved or altered, and could help contribute to more knowledge and openness about the genocide.

Menchú, Rigoberta. I, Rigoberta Menchú: An Indian Woman in Guatemala. London: Verso, 1984. Print. I plan on using this source to see the personal side of the victims of the genocide. I hope to incorporate some aspect of identity and identity preservation into my memorial and hopefully this source will help me do that. I think that this source will also give a unique perspective of the genocide that non-related parties can’t always give. I recognize that the information in this book may be biased, however this is the perspective I’m looking for to get more a personal story about the genocide.

Peace Pledge Union. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 May 2013. <;. This was another site that had background information on the genocide. I used it to learn about Guatemala before and after the genocide in order to get a more complete view on the political and social climate. I also wanted as many sources as I could find with facts because I think that, especially with a genocide like this that still has many unexumed mass graves and not as complete and accurate documentation, it’s really important to have as many sources with statistics as possible in order to get the most accurate data.

Report of the Commission for Historical Clarification: Guatemala. N.p.: CEH, n.d. Guatemala: Memory of Silence. Web. 2 May 2013. <;. This source will be helpful because I want to perhaps incorporate some of the international reaction into the memorial. I want my memorial to examine legacy and memory and I hope to incorporate both Mayan memory and non-Mayan memory of the genocide to combine both aspects for a more holistic and wide reaching view.

Annotated Bibliographies for Student Memorials

Darfur/Sudan Genocide

1)    “Genocide in Darfur | United Human Rights Council.” The United Human Rights Council | Educate Yourself & Others to Bring Change in the World. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <;.

This site contains a nice map of Sudan and the region of Darfur within it. It also has important history of the region and general information on the various ethnic groups and tribes. Sudanese President Omar al Bashir is also mentioned as one of the prime directors of the campaign of killing, rape, and pillage against civilians. “The Sudanese government appears unwilling to address the human rights crisis in the region and has not taken the necessary steps to restrict the activities of the Janjaweed. In June 2005, the International Criminal Court (ICC) took the first step in ending impunity in Darfur by launching investigations into human rights violations in Darfur. However, the government of Sudan refused to cooperate with the investigations.” This information furthers my argument that the plight of the Darfuri needs to be brought back on to the international stage as an urgent problem that needs to be addressed. Yet, it has been hindered from healing by its own government.

2)    “Save Darfur | An American Puts Sudan’s Cause in the Spotlight.” Save Darfur. N.p., 2 Dec. 2010. Web. 6 May 2013. <;.

This website’s primary focus is gaining support for the Save Darfur movement through fundraising and raising awareness. The information is presented in a way that is meant to provoke an emotional response. This article, from the NYT, is about the importance of writing to your congressmen and congresswomen and implanting the genocide in Darfur into the conscience of America. This site also contains summaries of the history of the genocide in the context of the region. I will use this information to frame my point and inform those who are unaware of the nature of the issue.

3)    Booker, Salih, and Ann-Louise Colgan. “Genocide in Darfur | The Nation.” The Nation. N.p., 12 July 2004. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <;.

This website gives specifics on what exactly the Khartoum government has done to obstruct the progress and protection of its displaced Darfuris: failing to honor sign cease-fires, obstructing international access to Darfur, blocked efforts to establish a relief program. “The Security Council continues to hesitate on Darfur, largely because of the economic and diplomatic interests of its permanent members, who don’t wish to antagonize Khartoum. Whether the UN can be spurred to action will depend largely on the United States, and Washington has an obligation to act.”

4)    “BBC News – Sudan profile .” BBC – Homepage. N.p., 14 Mar. 2013. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <;.

This site gives further background on greater Sudan, and puts the marginalization of Darfuris in the context of the greater state/region. It also summarizes the history of South Sudan’s secession from the north, which was peaceful, but still created tension as both “shared oil revenues and the exact border demarcation” have created prolonged issues. There is a fact, overview, timeline, media, and leaders profile to help me categorize my information.

5)    Reeves, Eric. “Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan.” Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan. N.p., 20 Aug. 2007. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <;.

This is a three-minute video clip of an interview with the man who the U.S. accuses of being the head of the Janjaweed, spearheading the racist war against African tribes in Darfur. His name is Musa Hilal. He says there is no truth to their claims. His tribe is among the least privileges in western Sudan, never granted a homeland by the British or first sultans. Basic survival is their daily concern. “There are no pure Arabs or pure Africans here, we are all mixed people, and thus we are not racist.” He even invites the UN to help stabilize Darfur, however, if they are coming with a colonial agenda, then they will be met with resistance… This video gives me the opposing viewpoint from the accused himself.

6)    Reeves, Eric. “Darfur: The genocide the world got tired of – Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan.” Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan. N.p., 24 Nov. 2011. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <;.

“News coverage of the Darfur region of western Sudan, including eastern Chad, has all but vanished.” This articles alludes to the Darfuri refugees in eastern Chad. (see also “‘They Came Here to Kill Us’: Militia Attacks and Ethnic Targeting of Civilians in Eastern Chad”) The UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) estimated that in the year 2011, there were some 285,000 refugees who remained near the Chad/Darfur border; these people are no closer to safe returns in substantial numbers than they were five years ago. It has been downplayed! “The figure for Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Darfur has been badly politicized, particularly by the UN’s Georg Charpentier, who lowered the UN estimate for IDPs from 2.7 million to 1.9 million in July 2010—justifying this only on the basis of a footnote reference to a report by the International Organisation for Migration that did not exist, and still is not complete.” This cite furthers my point that media coverage and politicizing has downplayed the tragedy, and urgency, in recent years.

7)    ” IDMC | Internally Displaced People (IDPs) in Sudan .” IDMC : Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 May 2013. <;.

This site contains boatloads of raw data and information on the internally displaced in Darfur. As of April 18, 2013, “Over 150,000 people forced to flee in Darfur in 2013.” The ‘humanitarian assessment” page linked on this page outlines the proposal and process of the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur – a document that is controversial in its implementation, as Darfuris themselves worry that funds will not, in the end, benefit them, but rather the ones in power. This site helps me cite specific numbers in how many have been forced to flee and become dispossessed and displaced.

8)    Sikainga, Ahmad. "'The World's Worst Humanitarian Crisis': Understanding the Darfur Conflict."Origins: Current Events in Historical Perspective. The Ohio State University, College of Arts and Sciences, 5 Feb. 2009. Web. 2 May 2013. <>. 
      “Despite what is currently the world's largest relief operation, efforts to calm the conflict and assist the approximately five million Darfurians suffering ongoing deprivation have produced precious few results.” “These tragic events have riveted the international community and attracted unprecedented media attention. However, much of the media coverage tends to follow the familiar patterns of sensationalizing the story rather than providing a nuanced analysis of the root causes.” This article furthers my point that the crisis in Darfur was only a phase in the conscience of America, and that after the surge in media coverage in the mid 2000’s, there are few to no reminders that the tragedy is still occurring.
9)    "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Crisis in Darfur." Google Earth Outreach. Google, n.d. Web. 2 May 2013. <>
      This Google Maps picture of a region in Darfur shows numerous red/yellow spots that signify large fire. “Images of the charred remains of village after village provided undeniable proof of the extent of destruction and its aftermath, with hundreds of thousands of tents in refugee camps dotted across the region. By bringing together geo-referenced photos and videos from Museum staff and acclaimed international photographers, as well as testimonies from Amnesty International, the stories of what happened to these villages became more personal and compelling. Crisis in Darfur is the Museum's first attempt at helping to humanize the victims of genocide through Google Earth.” This site shows us a unique and innovative way of trying to humanize the victims of the genocide through Google Earth.

10) Kristof, Nicholas. “Reading 1: “Save the Darfur Puppy” |” Journalism in a Digital Age | N.p., 10 May 2007. Web. 6 May 2013. <;.

Compelling argument for why people are unresponsive to the plight of Darfuris: “Evidence is overwhelming that humans respond to the suffering of individuals rather than groups. Think of the toddler Jessica McClure falling down a well in 1987, or the Lindbergh baby kidnapping in 1932 (which Mencken described as the “the biggest story since the Resurrection”). Even the right animal evokes a similar sympathy. A dog stranded on a ship aroused so much pity that $48,000 in private money was spent trying to rescue it — and that was before the Coast Guard stepped in. And after I began visiting Darfur in 2004, I was flummoxed by the public’s passion to save a red-tailed hawk, Pale Male, that had been evicted from his nest on Fifth Avenue in New York City. A single homeless hawk aroused more indignation than two million homeless Sudanese.” Individuals arouse more pity than groups…Hm. This idea gives me ideas for the artistic aspects of my memorial.

11) “Save Darfur | What Has Happened in Darfur?.” Save Darfur. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 May 2013. <;.

There are between 40 and 80 ethnic groups in Darfur. Most villages are multi-ethnic and, despite ethnic differences, there is a history of peaceful coexistence. Local languages include Arabic, Fur and Massalit.

The conflict in Darfur began in the spring of 2003 when two Darfuri rebel movements – the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) – launched attacks against government military installations as part of a campaign to fight against the historic political and economic marginalization of Darfur. The Sudanese government, at the time engaged in tense negotiations with the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) to end a three decades long civil war between North and South Sudan, responded swiftly and viciously to extinguish the insurgency. Through coordinated military raids with government-armed militia (collectively known as the Janjaweed), the Sudanese military specifically targeted ethnic groups from which the rebels received much of their support. The civilian casualties were immense. Over 400 villages were completely destroyed and millions of civilians were forced to flee their homes.

The United Nations-African Union peacekeeping force (UNAMID) now in Darfur replaced an underfunded and underequipped African Union peacekeeping mission in Darfur in January 2008. UNAMID to this day remains without the necessary resources to protect the 2.7 million internally displaced persons who live in large camps across Darfur. There are also around 300,000 Darfuri refugees living across the Sudanese border in neighboring Chad. Overall, the UN estimates that roughly 4.7 million people in Darfur (out of a total population of roughly 6 million) are still affected by the conflict.

Today, fighting between the rebel movements and the government continues. In the last few years, opportunistic bandits and militias have also taken advantage of the anarchy in Darfur. General banditry and looting jeopardize humanitarian aid and gender-based crimes are now being committed by many different sides. Despite this chaotic environment, the Sudanese government remains the most responsible for the violence in Darfur. President al-Bashir and others in his government created the anarchic conditions presiding in Darfur today through their violent counterinsurgency campaign targeting innocent men, women and children. Furthermore, the Sudanese government has obstructed the deployment of an international peacekeeping force, avoided serious negotiations with the rebel groups, refused to prosecute any individuals responsible for crimes against humanity committed in Darfur, and most recently expelled thirteen international humanitarian aid groups from Darfur. These actions continue to leave many civilians in Darfur unprotected and dispossessed of their basic human rights.

12) Perry, Alex. “How to Prevent the Next Darfur.” Time Magazine 7 May 2007: n. page. Time Magazine. Web. 10 May 2013. <<,9171,1615171,00.html>&gt;

“Chad, with its very limited supply of natural resources, is being strained due to the deluge of Sudanese refugees into camps along Chad’s border with Darfur since 2004.” This magazine paints a picture of the poverty and daily struggle of Darfuri refugees. In particular, it illustrates the natural environment of Darfur: barren, over-exploited, cannot sustain life. The article contains small anecdotes that humanize the victims of the Janjaweed terrors: “Adam became alternately petrified and violent, convinced that another Janjaweed onslaught was imminent. Afraid of his outbursts, his fellow refugees carried him to Chad tied to a door.”

13) Steidle, Brian, and Gretchen Steidle Wallace. The Devil Came on Horseback: Bearing Witness to the Genocide in Darfur. New York: Public Affairs, 2007. Print.

Goodreads review: “Former United States Marine Brian Steidle served for six months in Darfur as an unarmed military observer for the African Union. There he witnessed first-hand the ongoing genocide, and documented every day of his experience using email, audio journals, notebook after notebook and nearly 1,000 photographs. Gretchen Steidle Wallace, his sister, who wrote this book with Brian, corresponded with him throughout his time in Darfur. Fired upon, taken hostage, a witness to villages destroyed and people killed, frustrated by his mission’s limitations and the international community’s reluctance to intervene, Steidle resigned and has since become an advocate for the world to step in and stop this genocide. The Devil Came on Horseback depicts the tragic impact of an Arab government bent on destroying its black African citizens, the maddening complexity of international inaction in response to blatant genocide, and the awkward, yet heroic transformation of a former Marine turned humanitarian. It is a gripping and moving memoir that bears witness to atrocities we have too long averted our eyes from, and reveals that the actions of just one committed person have the power to change the world.” I will use this book to help me portray the victims in a more personal and familiar way to humanize them. This will help me create a vision that will be my monument.

Annotated Bibliographies for Student Memorials

Dominican Republican

Archibold, Randal C. “A Museum of Repression Aims to Shock the Conscience.” New York Times. NY Times, 12 Sept. 2012. Web. 13 May 2013. <;. I used this source because it was a great starting point for ideas for my memorial. It outlines a museum that represents the wrongs of Trujillo, and remembers the victims of his crimes. It also helped highlight what were some of the key themes during the Trujillo reign, which helped in my choices for my memorial.

Davis, Nick. “The Massacre that Marked Haiti-Dominican Republic Ties.” BBC News. N.p., 12 Oct. 2012. Web. 14 May 2013. <;. This article describes the joint efforts between the Dominican Republic and Haiti to repair the relationship. It also comments on the racism that still exists in the Dominican Republic.

Dove, Rita. “Parsley.” The Poetry Foundation. N.p., 1983. Web. 11 May 2013. <;. I am using this poem in my memorial. It describes both the history and emotional response to Trujillo. Dove writes two sections that outline two different perspectives of history: one of the government and the other of family.

Dr. Gates, narr. “Haiti & the Dominican Republic: An Island Divided.” Black in Latin America. PBS. San Francisco, Apr. 2011. Television. I used this source to gain an understanding of the history behind the tension that exists and lead up to the Parsley Massacre. It gives a very thorough description of each factor that has contributed to the current state. Additionally, I used it to learn about how each country gained their independence.

Fieser, Ezra. “Haitians and Dominicans remember Parsley Massacre, 75 years later  Read more here:” Haitian Link. The Miami Herald, 11 Oct. 2012. Web. 7 May 2013. <;. I used this source to look at how the Parsley Massacre is being remembered. Since there is no physical memorial, the article describes a gathering of both Dominicans and Haitians along the Massacre River to remember the tragedy. It concludes by illuminating hope for the future with Dominicans and Haitians coming together to ensure no one will be persecuted because of their nationality.

Ghosh, Palash. “Parsley Massacre: The Genocide That Still Haunts Haiti-Dominican Relations.” International Business Times. IBT Media Inc, 15 Oct. 2012. Web. 10 May 2013. <;. I used this cite to learn more about Trujillo’s direct involvement in the Parsley Massacre; what his orders were, his reactions, and beliefs. The article describes how Trujillo’s actions shaped relations between Haiti and the Dominican Republic as well as the lasting impact. It indicates the desire for peace to come between the two countries; a recognition that the affects of the massacre have endured.

“The Massacre.” Border of Lights. Border of Lights, n.d. Web. 14 May 2013. This source gives a very detailed description on how the Massacre is being remembered. It also discusses the necessary actions that will hopefully lead to a more peaceful relationship between the Dominican Republic and Haiti. I also used the historical background that is offered to learn more about Trujillo.

“Massacre of Haitians in the Dominican Republic 1937.” Wars of the World. N.p., 16 Dec. 2000. Web. 14 May 2013. <;. This source gives information on the Dominican Republic’s government, and the repercussions that followed. It also gives a very brief description of the role of the United States in the genocide.

“Obras” [“Works”]. La Obra. Fundación Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina, 2010. Web. 10 May 2013. <;. This website glorifies Rafael Trujillo and his contributions to the Dominican Republic. Still, there are supporters of Trujillo that agree with his methods and actions. I used this source as a comparison and explanation as to why people admire Trujillo; I was able to get a different perspective that highlights why tension still remains. Note: this website is in Spanish.

Roorda, Eric Paul. “Genocide Next Door: The Good Neighbor Policy, the Trujillo Regime, and the Haitian Massacre of 1937.” Diplomatic History 20.3 (1996): 301-19. Print. This is a very detailed account of the effects of the Massacre on the United State’s “Good Neighbor Policy.” The US response came mostly in order to maintain their program, which helped ensure that countries in Latin America remain democratic.

Annotated Bibliographies for Student Memorials

Bosnia/Rwanda Propaganda Memorial

BRUNWASSER, MATTHEW. “In Srebrenica, a Memorial Brings Peace –” The New York Times. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 May 2013. <


“Kigali Genocide Memorial Centre.” Kigali Memorial Centre. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 May 2013. <;.

“Srebrenica Genocide Memorial – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.” Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 May 2013. <;

Kurdish Genocide

Emily Hockett & Ryan Quinn

Ms. Finn

Genocide: Facing History and Ourselves


Works Cited

Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale Group, n.d. Web. 14 May 2013. <|A262787289&docType=GALE&role=>. This is a commentary on the testimonies of the victims of the Kurdish Genocide in the Court of Justice. The commentary explores the importance of the perspective of a victim, and this will be helpful in an effort to effectively commemorate the genocide so that it helps the victims and their families to deal with what happened. Those who decide to testify in trial are forced to relive the horrible things that happened to them in order to help others learn from the mistakes of the perpetrators. It is our duty in making this memorial to honor the wishes of the victims, and make sure their testimony was worth it. The commentary also provides details about the Halabja attack specifically, and what made it so horrible in the context of the larger genocide.

Fischbach, Michael R. Biographical Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Detroit: Gale Group, 2008. Gale World History in Context. Web. 11 May 2013. <;. This source is a complete biography of Ali Hassan al-Majid, or colloquially known as “Chemical Ali”. Al-Majid was Saddam Hussein’s second in command when it came to the Kurdish genocide. This document details how he was the one that orchestrated the chemical weapons attack on Halabja in 1988 and was the director behind all other acts of genocide during that time. It also addresses his actions after the genocide, which are equally as infamous. He served as the military governor of Iraqi-occupied Kuwait, as well as the commander in charge of violently quelling the Shi’ite uprising of 1991.

“Genocide and War Crimes.” PBS Frontline World. PBS, n.d. Web. 14 May 2013. <;. This article is an exploration of all previous US involvement in times of Genocide and other war crimes. It describes how news and other media sources have historically handled the subject of the genocide, and how the American people react to being told about a genocide. Additionally, it acts as a timeline to see how the US has changed throughout time in the intervention of genocide. This article also focuses on what gets publicity and why. This is particularly relevant to the genocide of the Kurds, because it was not as heavily publicized as other genocides occurring around the same time period.

“Halabja Monument to Kurdish Victims of Gas Massacre.” Kurdish Genocide. Krg Italy, n.d. Web. 8 May 2013. This article expresses the grievances of the Kurdish citizens about the memorial that the Iraqi government constructed to commemorate the Halabja massacre, which is the most notorious massacre of the Kurdish genocide. The monument offends many Kurdish citizens and the reaction it has received is largely negative. The creators of this website hope to construct a better memorial, that more effectively memorializes the whole genocide, not just one massacre. Additionally, the modern city of Halabja is still in extreme disarray after the genocide, so the citizens believe the money for the memorial should be used to rehabilitate the city instead of build a memorial. We will use this source as a point of reference to understand what works and what does not, and how to properly memorialize the genocide without infuriating the Kurdish citizens.

Hassanpour, Amir. Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. Gale World History in Context. Web. 10 May 2013. <;. This source is from an encyclopedia of the world’s genocides, however this section provides much more information on the Kurds than just the genocide of 1988. This source details discrimination against Kurds across multiple countries, including Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Russia, and across multiple centuries, from the rule of the Ottomans in the 1600s until even now. The real value in this source is not in its specificity or detail, but rather that it addresses a large period of time and a large range of Kurdish culture and discrimination.

“Iraq: British Parliament Unanimously Recognizes Kurdish Genocide.” Gale Groupe. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 14 May 2013. <|A320915839&docType=GALE&role=>. This article was written directly after the British Parliament recognized the massacre of the Kurds as genocide, which occurred on March 1, 2013. This momentous vote is incredibly important in our study of the Kurdish Genocide, especially since it took place so recently. The British Parliament recognized the genocide as such to set an example for other parties to do the same, and to instigate the conversation about the genocide and its implications today. The article discusses how the vote came to take place, and why it was so popular.

“Iraqi Government Promotes Genocide of Kurds.” Gale Student Resources in Context: n. pag. Rpt. in Historic World Events. Detroit: Gale, 2012. N. pag. Print. This source gives us a background about the Kurds and their treatment by the Iraqi government before this instance of genocide. It discusses their culture, and recalls instances in which the Iraqi government discriminated against and massacred the Kurdish peoples. It also brings up the Kurdish efforts to form their own government, and the Iraqi government’s promise to grant them sovereignty. This source helps us to understand the background of Kurdish-Iraqi conflict, and the political climate of Iraq.

“Kurdish Genocide on Trial in Iraq.” UPI Newstrack: n. pag. Print. This article is about the trial of five men being accused of crimes of genocide. They were tried in the Iraqi Supreme Court in 2007. The defendants are not only being accused of crimes of genocide, but more specifically the use of chemical weapons and weapons of mass destruction in Genocide. Given our study of Arendt’s look at Eichmann and our own perceptions of David Cash, a study of this trial could be interesting for our research.

“Kurds at the Crossroads: 1978-1992: Atrocity, Genocide and Land.” PBS Frontline World. PBS, n.d. Web. 14 May 2013. <;. This timeline of the Kurdish peoples has a specific section that recounts the time period between 1978-1992, and gives the reader an idea of what happened before, after and during the Kurdish genocide. It provides images that will hopefully prove useful, and describes in detail the type of warfare that occurred. We will use this to get an idea of the nature of the genocide, and the conflict between the Kurds and Iraqis that existed before the genocide took place. Additionally, we will get an idea of how the Kurdish people reacted to the genocide, and how the aftermath has impacted current Kurdish-Iraqi relations.

Marashi, Ibrahim. Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. New York City: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2002. Gale World History in Context. Web. 10 May 2013. <;. This source is a history of human rights in Iraq. It details the Kurdish genocide fairly well, however, it also gives some background to the history of human rights violations that occurred in Iraq before the genocidal attacks of 1988. This source discusses human rights violations as early as the late 1960s when the Ba’ath party took control of the country, and proceeded to systematically eliminate its opposition through either deportation or murder. The source gives perspective on the violence of Iraq’s political and ethnic history, even before Saddam.

Marrus, Michael R. “More Than Saddam Is On Trial.” The Globe and Mail 18 Oct. 2005: n. pag. Gale World History in Context. Web. 10 May 2013. <;. This article focuses on the trial of Saddam Hussein that took place after his capture during Operation Iraqi Freedom. It details the charges against him, including the specifics of his involvement in the Anfal campaign. This gives an idea of how justice and judgment was carried out after the Kurdish genocide. This source also details the other charges against Saddam, including the mass murder of political and religious dissidents, aggressions against Kuwait, etc. giving a broader background to the violent nature of his dictatorship.

The Middle East July 2008. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 14 May 2013. <|A181620934&docType=GALE&role=>. This article examines the Anfal Conference, which took place at the 20th anniversary of the Kurdish Genocide in 2008. The article talks about how the genocide is being talked about and remembered 20 years after the fact, and what kind of initiatives exist to commemorate the genocide along with stopping further genocides. The article gives testimonies from multiple survivors of the genocide and even includes breathtaking images of victims and their families.

Prejudice in the Modern World Reference Library. Detroit: UXL, 2007. Gale World History in Context. Web. 11 May 2013. <;. This source is similar to the source on human rights in Iraq, however, it is more extensive in how prejudice in Iraq is correlated with the Ba’ath Party and their rise to power in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The source goes on to describe the exact prejudices against the Kurds that were greatly exacerbated throughout the Sunni and Shiite populations under the rule of Saddam Hussein. Other valuable sections of this source include detailed accounts of the chemical weapons attacks and prejudices suffered by the Kurds in Iran, Turkey and Syria as well.

Sadam Hussein: Mini Biography., n.d. Web. 8 May 2013. <;. This video illustrates the life and background of Sadam Hussein, the main perpetrator of the Kurdish genocide. This piece of video is relevant because it demonstrates Hussein’s power over the Iraqi people and describes the cruel tactics of war Hussein employed. Additionally, this source touches on the political climate of the US at the time of the genocide and throughout the Iraq-Iran war, which explains the lack of intervention during the times of genocide.

“Wooing Christians; Turkey and Religious Freedom.” The Economist: n. pag. The Economist. Web. 14 May 2013. <|A243378472&docType=GALE&role=>. This article is about the Kurds harassing the christian peoples that inhabit the same region. Its approach and treatment towards the Kurds is quite harsh, and it acts as a reflection of how modern media and journalism view the Kurds. Because of their nomadic and tribal way of life, the Kurds are looked down upon in Western society and this Economist article reflects that view. Establishing acceptance and understanding of Kurdish values is essential in the construction of our memorial, especially if we decide to make the memorial in the US.



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